The following is an in-progress list of helpful general academic and archival print resources that relate to early cinema more broadly, as well as different national silent film industries and histories. For print resources that relate to a specific pioneer, please see the profile bibliography.


Abel, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. London: Routledge, 2005.

——. Silent Film. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1996.

Abel, Richard, Giorgio Bertellini, and Rob King, eds. Early Cinema and the “National.” New Barnet, UK: John Libbey Press, 2008.

Acker, Ally. Reel Women: Pioneers of the Cinema, 1896 to the Present. New York: Continuum, 1991.

Altman, Rick. Silent Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007.

Bean, Jennifer M., Anupampa Kapse, and Laura Horak, eds. Silent Cinema and the Politics of Space. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014.

Bean, Jennifer M., and Diane Negra, eds. A Feminist Reader in Early Cinema. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

Brewster, Ben, and Lea Jacobs. Theatre to Cinema: Stage Pictorialism and the Early Feature Film. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Bridges, Melody, and Cheryl Robson, eds. Silent Women: Pioneers of Cinema. United Kingdom: Aurora Metro Books, 2015.

Bull, Sofia, and Astrid Söderbergh-Widding, eds. Not So Silent: Women in Cinema Before Sound.  Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2010.

Cherchi-Usai, Paolo. Silent Cinema: An Introduction. 2nd edition. London: BFI, 2000.

Dahlquist, Marina ed. Exporting Perilous Pauline: Pearl White and the Serial Film Craze. Urbana, Chicago and Springfield: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Dall’Asta, Monica, Victoria Duckett, and Lucia Tralli, eds. Researching Women in Silent Cinema: New Finding and Perspectives. Bologna: Dipartimento delle Arti – DAR, Alma mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, 2013.

DeCordova, Richard. Picture Personalities: The Emergence of the Star System in America. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990. Rpt. in 2001.

Elsaesser, Thomas. Early Cinema: Space, Frame, Narrative. London: British Film Institute, 1990.

Förster, Annette. Women in the Silent Cinema: Histories of Fame and Fate. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2017.

Fossati, Giovanna. From Grain to Pixel: The Archival Life of Film in Transition. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019.

Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey. Women Film Directors: An International Bio-Critical Dictionary. Westport: Greenwood, 1995.

Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey, Katrien Jacobs, and Amy L. Unterburger. Women Filmmakers & Their Films. Detroit: St. James Press, 1998.

Gaines, Jane. Pink-SlippedWhat Happened to Women in Silent Film Industries. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2018.

Gledhill, Christine and Julia Knight, eds. Doing Women’s Film History. Reframing Cinemas, Past and Future. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2015.

Grieveson, Lee and Peter Krämer, eds. The Silent Cinema Reader. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Hastie, Amelie. Cupboards of Curiosity: Women, Recollection, and Film History. Duke University Press, 2007.

Hennefeld, Maggie. Specters of Slapstick and Silent Film Comediennes. New York: Columbia University Press, 2018.

Kay, Karyn and Gerald Peary, eds. Women and the Cinema: A Critical Anthology. New York: Dutton, 1977.

Nelmes, Jill, and Julie Selbo, eds. Women Screenwriters: An International Guide. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Petro, Patrice. Aftershocks of the New: Feminism and Film History. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

Pilling, Jayne. Women and Animation: A Compendium. London: British Film Institute, Exhibition & Distribution Division, 1992

Potter, Susan. Queer Timing: The Emergence of Lesbian Sexuality in Early Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2019.

Shore, Amy. Suffrage and the Silver Screen. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 2014.

Singer, Ben. Melodrama and Modernity: Early Sensational Cinema and Its Contexts. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Slide, Anthony. Early Women Directors. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1977.

Smith, Sharon. Women Who Make Movies. New York: Hopkinson and Blake, 1975.

——. “Women Who Make Movies.” Women & Film vol. 1, no. 3-4 (1973): 77-91.

Thompson, Kristen. Exporting Entertainment: America in the Film World Market, 1907-34. London: British Film Institute, 1985.

Yumibe, Joshua. Moving Color: Early Film, Mass Culture, Modernism. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2012.



Bao, Weihong. Fiery Cinema: The Emergence of an Affective Medium in China, 1915-1945. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2015.

Wang, Lingzhen, ed. Chinese Women’s Cinema: Transnational Contexts. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Xu, Daoming, and Sha Sipeng. A Brief History of Chinese Cinema/中國電影簡史. Beijing: China Youth Press, 1990.

Ye, Tan, and Yun Zhu. Historical Dictionary of Chinese Cinema. Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press, 2012.

Zhang, Zhen. An Amorous History of the Silver Screen: Shanghai Cinema, 1896-1937. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.


Wada-Marciano, Mitsuyo. Nippon Modern: Japanese Cinema of the 1920s and 1930s. Honolulu, University of Hawai’i Press, 2008.


Strait Paneja, Lena. “Roles and Images of Woman in the Early Years of Philippine Cinema 1912–1941.”  PhD Dissertation, University of the Philippines Diliman, 1998.


Barmé, Scot. “Early Thai Cinema and Filmmaking.” Film History vol. 11, no. 3 (1999): 308-18.


Pike, Andrew, and Ross Cooper. Australian Film 1900–1977. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Radi, Heather, ed. 200 Australian Women: A Redress Anthology. Broadway, NSW: Women’s Redress Press, 1988.

Tulloch, John. Legends on the Screen: The Australian Narrative Cinema 1919–1929. Sydney: Currency, 1981.

Wright, Andrée. Brilliant Careers: Women in Australian Cinema. Sydney: Pan Books, 1986.


Gasher, Mike. Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 2002.

Gaudreault, André, Germain Lacasse, and Jean-Pierre Sirois-Trahan. Au pays des ennemis du cinéma: pour une nouvelle histoire des débuts du cinéma au Québec. Quebec City: Nuit blanche, 1996.

Lacasse, Germain. Histoires de scopes: le cinéma muet au Québec. Montreal: Cinémathèque québécoise, 1988.

——. L’Historiographe: les débuts du spectacle cinématographique au Québec. Montreal: Cinémathèque québécoise, 1985.



Fritz, Walter. Cinema in Austria. The silent movie 1896-1930. Vienna: Austrian Federal Publisher, 1981.

Thaller, Anton, ed.  Austrian Filmography, Volume 1: Feature Films 1906-1918. Vienna: Publisher Filmarchiv Austria, 2010.


Skrabalo, Ivo. Između publike i države: Povijest hrvatske kinematografije, 1896–1980. Zagreb: Znanje, 1984.


Havelka, Jiří. 50 let Československého filmu. Praha: Československý státní film, 1953.


Fullerton, John and Jan Olsson (eds.). Nordic Expressions: Film Before 1930. London: John Libbey, 1999.

Nørgaard, Erik. Levende billeder i Danmark: Fra den gamle biograf til moderne tider. Copenhagen: Lademann, 1971.

Sundholm, John, Isak Thorsen, Lars Gustaf Andersson, Olof Hedling, Gunnar Iversen and Birgir Thor Møller. Historical Dictionary of Scandinavian Cinema. Kanham, Toronto, Plymouth: Scarecrow Press, 2012.


Burrows, Jon. Legitimate Cinema; Theatre Stars in Silent British Films, 1908-1918. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 2003.

Burton, Alan and Laraine Porter, eds. Pimple, Pranks and Pratfalls: British Film Comedy Before 1930. Wiltshire: Flicks Books, 2000.

Gifford, Denis. The British Film Catalogue. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973.

Gledhill, Christine. Reframing British Cinema 1918–1928: Between Restraint and Passion. London: BFI, 2003.

Low, Rachael. The History of the British Film: 1896-1906. Vol 1. London: Allen & Unwin, 1948.

——. The History of the British Film: 1906-1914. Vol. 2. London: Allen & Unwin, 1948.

——. The History of British Film: 1914-1918. Vol 3. London: Allen & Unwin, 1948.

——.  The History of British Film: 1918-1929. Vol. 4. London: Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1950.

Perry, George. Forever Ealing: A Celebration of the Great British Film Studio. London: Pavilion Press, 1981.

Sargeant, Amy. British Cinema: A Critical History. London: BFI, 2005.


Hupaniittu, Outi. Biografiliiketoiminnan valtakausi: toimijuus ja kilpailu suomalaisella elokuva-alalla 1900–1920 -luvuilla. Turku: Turun yliopisto, 2013.

Laine, Kimmo. “Pääosassa Suomen kansa”: Suomi-Filmi ja Suomen Filmiteollisuus kansallisen elokuvan rakentajina 1933–1939. Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 1999.

Seppälä, Jaakko. Hollywood tulee Suomeen: yhdysvaltalaisten elokuvien maahantuonti ja vastaanotto kaksikymmentäluvun Suomessa. Helsinki: Helsingin yliopisto, 2012.

Uusitalo, Kari, et al., ed. Suomen kansallisfilmografia 1, 1907–1935: vuosien 1907–1935 suomalaiset kokoillan elokuvat. Helsinki: Edita, 1996.


Abel, Richard. The Ciné Goes to Town: French Cinema 1896-1914. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1994.

——. French Cinema: The First Wave, 1915-1929. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1984.

——, ed. French Film Theory and Criticism: A History/Anthology 1907-1939. Vol. 1. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.

Albera, François, and Jean A. Gili, eds. Dictionnaire du cinéma français des années vingt. Special Issue 1895 33 (2001).

Borde, Raymond, and Charles Perrin. Les Offices du cinéma éducateur et la survivance du muet (1925-1940). Lyon: Presses Universitaires de Lyon, 1992.

Brenez, Nicole and Christian Lebrat. Jeune, dure et pure! Une histoire du cinéma d’avant-garde et expérimental en France. Paris: Cinémathèque Française, 2001.

Carou, Alain. Le Cinéma français et les écrivains: histoire d’une rencontre, 1906-1914. Paris: École nationale des chartes/Association française de recherche sur l’histoire du cinéma, 2002.

Chirat, Raymond and Eric Le Roy. Catalogue des films français de fiction de 1908 à 1918. Paris: Cinémathèque française/Musée du cinéma, 1995.

Chirat, Raymond, ed. Catalogue des films français de long métrage. Films de fiction 1919-1929. Toulouse: Cinémathèque de Toulouse, 1984.

Fliterman-Lewis, Sandy. To Desire Differently: Feminism and French Cinema. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1990.

Gauthier, Guy. Un siècle de documentaires français. Paris: Armand Colin, 2004.

Ghali, Nourredine. L’Avant-garde cinématographique en France dans les années vingt: idées, conceptions, théories. Paris: Paris Experimental, 1995.

Gili, Jean, ed. Du côté de chez Pathe (1895-1935). Paris: AFRHC, 1996.

Giraud, Jean. Le Lexique fraçais du cinéma des origines à 1930. Paris: CNRS, 1958.

Jeanne, René, and Charles Ford. Histoire encyclopédique du cinéma: I, Le cinéma français 1895-1929. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1947.

Kermabon, Jacques, ed. Pathé, premier empire du cinéma. Paris: editions Centre George Pompidou, 1994.

Sadoul, Georges. Le Cinéma français. Paris: Flammarion, 1962.

Silver, Kenneth E. Esprit de corps: The Art of the Parisian Avant-garde and the First World War, 1914-1925. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Slavin, David Henry. Colonial Cinema and Imperial France, 1919-1939: White Blind Spots, Male Fantasies, Settler Myths. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.

Thévenet, René, ed. Annuaire biographique du cinéma et de la télevision en France. Paris: Contact-Organisation, 1953.

Trebuil, Christophe. Un Cinéma aux mille visages: le film à épisodes en France 1915-1932. Paris: Association française de recherche sur l’histoire du cinéma, 2012.

Weber, Alain. Cinéma(s) français 1900-1939: pour un monde different. Paris: Séguier, 2002.

Williams, Alan. Republic of Images: A History of French Filmmaking. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992.


Verzeichnis in Deutschland gelaufener Filme—Entscheidungen der Filmzensur 1911–1920. Berlin: K.G. Saur, 1980.

Hansch, Gabrielle and Gerlinde Waz. Filmpionierinnen in Deutschland. Ein Beitrag zur Filmgeschichtsschreibung. Unpublished, Berlin, 1998.

Lamprecht, Gerhard. Deutsche Stummfilme 1917–1918. Berlin: Deutsche Kinematek, 1969.

Prawer, Siegbert Salomon. Between Two Worlds: The Jewish Presence in German and Austrian Film, 1910-1933. New York and Oxford: Berghahn, 2005.

Usai, Paolo Cherchi and Codelli, Lorenzo, eds. Before Caligari: German Cinema, 1895–1920/Prima di Caligari: Cinema tedesco, 1895–1920. Pordenone: Le Giornate del Cinema Muto/Edizioni Biblioteca dell’Immagine, 1990.


Barton, Ruth. Irish National Cinema. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Condon, DenisEarly Irish Cinema, 1895-1921. Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 2008.

Rockett, Keven, Luke Gibbons and John Hill, eds. Cinema and IrelandLondon: Croom Helm, 1988.

Slide, Anthony. The Cinema and Ireland. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988.


Bernardini, Aldo. Cinema muto italiano. 1905-1909. Roma-Bari: Editori Laterza, 1981.

——. Cinema muto italiano. 1910-1914. Roma-Bari: Editori Laterza, 1982.

Bertellini, Giorgio, ed. Silent Italian Cinema: A Reader. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2013.

Brunetta, Gian Piero. Il cinema muto italiano. Rome-Bari: Laterza, 2008.

——.  Storia del cinema italiano 1. Il cinema muto, 1895-1929. Roma: Editori Riuniti, 2001.

Chiti, Roberto. Dizionario dei registi del cinema muto italiano. Roma: M.I.C.S., 1997.

Dall’Asta, Monica, ed. Non solo dive. Pioniere del cinema italiano. Bologna: Cineteca di Bologna, 2009.

D’Amico, Silvio. Enciclopedia dello Spettacolo. Vol. II. Rome: Le maschere, 1954-1962.

Martinelli, Vittorio. Il cinema muto italiano 1915-1931. 11 vols. Rome: RAI-ERI, 1992-96.

Paolella, Roberto. Storia del cinema muto. Napoli: Giannini, 1956.

Pravadelli, Veronica. Le donne del cinema. Dive, registe, spettatrici. Napoli: Laterza, 2014.


Donaldson, Geoffrey. Of Joy and Sorrow: A Filmography of Dutch Silent Fiction. Amsterdam: Nederlands Filmmuseum, 1997.


Braaten, Lars Thomas m.fl. Filmen i Norge. Norske kinofilmer gjennom 100 år. Oslo: Ad Notam Gyldendal, 1995.

Fullerton, John and Jan Olsson, eds. Nordic Explorations: Film Before 1930. London: John Libbey, 1999.


Nobre, Roberto. Singularidades do Cinema Português. Portugália Editora, Lisbon, 1964.

Ribeiro, M. Félix. Filmes, figuras e factos da história do cinema português, 1896-1949. Lisbon: Cinemateca Portuguesa, 1983.


Attwood, Lynn. Red Women on the Silver Screen: Soviet Women and Cinema from the Beginning to the End of the Communist Era. London: Pandora, 1993.

Ginzburg, Semen. Kinematografiia dorevoliutsionnoi Rossii. Moscow: Agraf, 2007.

Korotkii, Viktor. Operatory i rezhissery russkogo igrovogo kino (1897–1921). Moscow: NII kinoiskusstva, 2009.

Leyda, Jay. Kino: A History of the Russian and Soviet Film. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ.: Princeton UP, 1982.


Aguilar, Carlos. Guía del cine español. Madrid: Cátedra, Colección Signo e Imagen, 2007.

Bentley, Bernard P.E. A Companion to Spanish Cinema. Woodbridge: Tamesis, 2008.

Borau, José Luis and María Pastor, eds.  Diccionario del cine español. Academia de las Artes y las Ciencias Cinematográficas de España. Madrid: Alianza, 1998.

Casares Rodicio, Emilio, ed. Diccionario del Cine Iberoamericano. España, Portugal y América. Madrid: SGAE, 2011.

Del Carmen Rodríguez Fernández, María and Eduardo Viñuela Suárez, eds. Diccionario crítico de directoras de cine europeas. Critical Dictionary of European Filmmakers. Madrid: Cátedra, 2011.

González López, Palmira, and Joaquín Cánovas Belchi. Catálogo del cine español. Volumen F2. Películas de ficción. 1921-1930. Madrid: Filmoteca Española, 1993.

Méndez-Leite, Fernando. Historia del cine español. Madrid: Rialp, 1965.


Florin, Bo. Den nationella stilen: Studier i den svenska filmens guldålder. Stockholm: Aura Förlag, 1997.



Di Núbila, Domingo. La Época de Oro: Historia del Cine Argentino. Buenos Aires: El Jilguero, 1998.

——. Historia del Cine Argentino. Buenos Aires: Edición Cruz de Malta, 1960.

——. History of the Argentine Cinema: A Summary. Olivos: Cruz de Malta. 1962.

Finkielman, Jorge. The Film Industry in Argentina: An Illustrated Cultural History. Jefferson: McFarland, 2003.

King, John. Argentine Cinema. Plymouth, UK: Plymouth Arts Centre, 1986.

——, and Nissa Torrents. The Garden of the Forking Paths: Argentine Cinema. London: British Film Institute, 1988.

Mahieu, José Agustín. Breve Historia del Cine Argentino. Buenos Aires: Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires, 1966.

Manrupe, Raúl and María Alejandra Portela. Un Diccionario de Films ArgentinosTomo III (2003-2009). Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 2010.

——. Un Diccionario de Films Argentinos. Tomo II (1996-2002). Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 2004.

——. Un Diccionario de Films Argentinos. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 1995.

Martínez, Adolfo C. Diccionario de Directores del Cine Argentino: de Comienzos del Sonoro a Nuestras Días. Buenos Aires: Corregidor, 2004.


Dennison, Stephanie, and Lisa Shaw. Brazilian National Cinema. New York: Routledge. 2007.

Jonson, Randal and Robert Stam. Brazilian Cinema. London: Associated University Presses, 1982.

Nagib, Lúcia. The New Brazilian Cinema. London: University of Oxford Press, 2003.


Jara Donoso, Eliana. Cine Mudo Chileno. Santiago: Self-published, 1994.

Mouesca Jacqueline. Breve Historia del Cine Chileno. Santiago: LOM Editores, 2010.

——. Cine Chileno: Veinte Años, 1970-1990. Santiago, Chile: Ministerio de Educación, División de Cultura, 1992.

——. Plano Secuencia de la Memoria de Chile: Veinticinco Años de Cine Chileno (1960-1985). Santiago: Ediciones del Litoral, 1988.


Ayala Blanco, Jorge. La Aventura del Cine Mexicano. Mexico City: Ediciones Era, 1968.

Dávalos Orozco, Federico, and Esperanza Vásquez Bernal. Filmografía General del Cine Mexicano (19061931). Puebla: Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 1985.

De los Reyes, Aurelio. Cine y Sociedad en México (18961930). 2 vols. Mexico City: UNAM, 1994.

——. Filmografía del Cine Mudo Mexicano: 19241931. Vol. 3. Mexico City: UNAM, Dirección General de Actividades Cinematográficas, 2000.

——. Medio Siglo de Cine Mexicano (18961900). Mexico City: Editorial Trillas, 1987.

——. Los Orígenes del Cine Mexicano (18961900). Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1983.

Galindo, Alejandro. Una Radiografía Histórica del Cine Mexicano. Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Popular, 1968.

——, and Rafael Aviña. Epoca de Oro del Cine Mexicano. Mexico City: Clío. 1997.

García, Gustavo. El Cine Mudo Mexicano. Mexico City: Martín Casillas Editores, Cultura/SEP, 1982.

García Riera, Emilio. Breve Historia del Cine Mexicano: Primer Siglo, 18971997. Guadalajara: Ediciones Mapas, 1998.

——. Filmografía Mexicana, Medio y Largometrajes. Mexico City: Cineteca Nacional, 1985.

——.. Historia del Cine Mexicano. Mexico City: Secretaría de Educación Pública, 1985.

——. Historia Documental del Cine Mexicano. 18 vols. Guadalajara: Universidad de Guadalajara, CONACULTA, IMCINE, 19921997.

——. Historia Documental del Cine Mexicano: Época Sonora. Mexico City: Ediciones Era, 1969.

——. Medio Siglo de Cine Mexicano. Mexico City: UNAM, 1960.

Miquel, Angel.  Acercaminetos al Cine Silente Mexicano. Cuernavaca, Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Facultad de Artes, 2005.

——. Los Exaltados: Antología de Escritos Sobre Cine en Periódicos y Revistas de la Ciudad de México, 1896-1929. Guadalajara, Mexico: Universidad de Guadalajara (CIEC), 1992.

——. Por Las Pantallas de la Ciudad de México: Periodistas del Cine Mudo. Guadalajara, Mexico: Universidad de Guadalajara, 1995.

Mora, Carl J. Mexican Cinema: Reflections of a Society, 1896-1980. Berkeley, C.A.: University of California Press, 1982.

———. Mexican Films: A General History, 1896-1976. Ann Arbor, M.I.: University Microfilms International, 1979.

Paranaguá, Paulo Antonio. Mexican Cinema. London: British Film Institute, 1995.

Ramírez, Gabriel. Crónica del cine mudo mexicano. Mexico City: Cineteca Nacional, 1989.

Rangel, Ricardo, and Rafael Portas. Enciclopedia Cinematográfica Mexicana. Mexico City: Publicaciones Cinematográficas, 1957.

Tuñón, Julia. Mujeres de Luz y Sombra en el Cine Mexicano: La Construcción de Una Imagen, 1939-1952. Mexico City: El Colegio de México, IMCINE, 1998.

Vaidovits, Guillermo. El Cine Mudo en Guadalajara. Guadalajara, Mexico: CIEC, 1989.

Valenzuela Arce, José Manuel. Los Estudio Culturales en México. Mexico City: CONACULTA, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2003.

Viñas, Moisés. Índice Cronológico del Cine Mexicano (1896-1992). Mexico City: Dirección General de Actividades Cinematográficas de la UNAM, 1992.


Bedoya, Ricardo. 100 Años de Cine en el Perú: Una Historia Crítica. Lima: Universidad de Lima e Instituto de Cooperación Iberoamericana, 1992.

——. Un Cine Reencontrado: Diccionario Ilustrado de las Películas Peruanas. Lima: Universidad de Lima, Fondo de Desarrollo, 1997.


Bethell, Leslie. A Cultural History of Latin America: Literature, Music and the Visual Arts in the 19th and 20th Centuries. New York: Cambridge UP, 1998.

Burton, Julianne. The New Latin American Cinema: An Annotated Bibliography of Sources in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, 1960–1980. New York: Smyrna, 1983.

King, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Modern Latin American Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

——. El Carrete Mágico: Una Historia del Cine Latinoamericano. Bogotá: T.M. Editores, 1994.

——. Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. New York: Verso, 2000.

——, Ana M. López and Manuel Alvarado, eds. Mediating Two Worlds: Cinematic Encounters in the Americas. London: British Film Institute, 1993.

Kriger, Clara and María Alejandra Portela. Diccionario De RealizadoresCine Latinoamericano; 1. Buenos Aires: El Jilguero, 1997.

López, Ana M. “Early Cinema and Modernity in Latin America.” Cinema Journal 40.1 (2000): 48-78.

Palmisano, Joseph M. ed. Notable Hispanic Women, Book II. Detroit: Gale Research, 1998.

Paranaguá, Paulo Antonio. Tradición y Modernidad en el Cine de América Latina. Madrid: Fondo de Cultura Económica de España, 2003.

——, José Carlos Avellar, et al. Cine Documental en América Latina. Madrid: Cátedra, 2003.

Schnitman, Jorge A. Film Industries in Latin America: Dependency and Development. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex Pub. Corp., 1984.

Schumann, Peter B. Historia del Cine Latinoamericano. Buenos Aires: Editorial Legasa. 1987.

Schwartz, Ronald. Latin American Films, 1932-1994: A Critical Filmography. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 1997.

Toledo, Teresa. Realizadoras Latinoamericanas: Cronología, 1917-1987. New York: Círculo de Cultura Cubana, 1987.

——, and Héctor García Mesa. Cine Latinoamericano (1896-1930). Caracas: Consejo Nacional de la Cultura, 1992.

Torres San Martín, Patricia. Mujeres y Cine en América Latina. Guadalajara, Mexico: Universidad de Guadalajara, 2004.

Trelles Plazaola, Luis. Cine y Mujer en América Latina: Directoras de Largometrajes de Ficción. Puerto Rico: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1991.

——. Cine Sudamericano: Diccionario de Directores. Río Piedras, P.R.: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1986.

——. South American Cinema: Dictionary of Film Makers. Río Piedras, P.R.: Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, 1989.



Issari, Mohammad Ali. Cinema in Iran, 1900-1979. London: Scarecrow Press, 1989.


Khlifi, Omar. L’histoire du cinéma en Tunisie. Tunis: Société Tunisienne de Diffusion, 1970.


Atakav, Eylem. Women and Turkish Cinema: Gender Politics, Cultural Identity and Representation. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2013.


Abel, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. Abingdon: Routledge, 2005.

The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: Film Beginnings, 1893–1910—A Work in Progress. Metuchen: Scarecrow, 1995.

Bowser, Eileen. Biograph Bulletins, 1908–1912. New York: Octagon Books, 1973.

Bowser, Eileen, and John Kuiper, eds. A Handbook for Film Archives: Based on the Experiences of Members of the International Federation of Film Archives. Brussels: Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film, 1980.

——, eds. A Handbook for Film Archives. New York: Garland, 1991.

Braff, Richard E. The Braff Silent Short Film Working Papers: Over 25,000 Films, 1903–1929, Alphabetized and Indexed. Jefferson: McFarland, 2002.

Bushnell, Brooks. Directors and Their Films: A Comprehensive Reference, 1895–1990. Jefferson: McFarland, 1993.

Catalog of Copyright Entries, Motion Pictures 1912–1939. Washington DC: Library of Congress, Copyright Office, 1951.

Catalog of Copyright Entries, Fourth Series. Part 4, Motion Pictures & Filmstrips. Washington DC: Copyright Office, Library of Congress, 1979.

Clark, Randall, ed. American Screenwriters: Second Series. Detroit: Gale, 1986.

Cook, Samantha. International Directory of Films and Filmmakers. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James, 1993.

Cooper, Mark Garrett. Universal Women: A Case of Institutional Change. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2010.

Crafton, Donald. Before Mickey: The Animated Film, 1898-1928. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1982

D’Agostino, Annette M., ed. Filmmakers in the Moving Picture World: An Index of Articles, 1907–1927. Jefferson: McFarland, 1997.

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