Cinema’s First Nasty Women

The Cinema’s First Nasty Women DVD (left) and Blu-ray (right) covers. Kino Lorber, August 30, 2022.

The release date is August 30, 2022. Pre-order your copy from Kino Lorber today!

Upcoming Events

Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” film series at UCLA Film & Television Archive, Los Angeles, California, August 12-21, 2022.

Screening of What’s the World Coming To? (1926) at Internationale Bonner Stummfilmtage, Bonn, Germany, August 14, 2022.

Queens of Destruction: A Selection of Films from Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” The Museum of the Moving Image (Astoria, Queens), August 20 + 21, 2022.

Queens of Destruction,” Trylon Cinema, Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 25, 2022.

A selection of films from Cinema’s First Nasty Women, Indiana University Cinema, September 29, 2022.

Hysteria, Hypnosis, and Hallucination: Silent Cinema Shorts with Live Music Featuring Dreamland Faces,” Northrop Theater, University of Minnesota, October 18-31. In-person event on October 18 + livestream (on demand until October 31).

The Project

Cinema’s First Nasty Women is a 4-disc DVD/Blu-ray set featuring rarely-seen silent films about feminist protest, anarchic slapstick destruction, and suggestive gender play. The collection includes 99 European and American silent films, produced from 1898 to 1926, sourced from 13 international film archives and libraries, and spotlighting slapstick comediennes and cross-dressing women of the silent screen. The women included are indeed very “nasty”—they organize labor strikes, bake (and weaponize) inedible desserts, explode out of the chimney, electrocute the police force, and assume a range of identities that gleefully dismantle traditional gender norms and sexual constraints. The films span a range of genres including slapstick comedy, genteel farce, the trick film, cowboy melodrama, and adventure thriller.

Follow Cinema’s First Nasty Women on Twitter & Facebook!
 



Disc Summaries

Disc 1: Disastrous Domestics & Anarchic Tomboys

Laura Bayley in Mary Jane’s Mishap (G.A. Smith, UK, 1903). Courtesy of the BFI.

Vengeful kitchen maids and rambunctious teenagers conspire to leave the domestic sphere in total shambles. Housemaids combust through the chimney, fiancées weaponize their inedible baked goods against the patriarchy, while recalcitrant daughters flood and incinerate their family homes. This disc also spotlights the forgotten films of Léontine, an internationally popular French comedienne character and star of a Pathé Comica series that produced over 21 titles from 1910-1912. (But her identity remains unknown to this day!) It also features anarchic, hilarious performances by Lea Giunchi, Bertha Regustus, Laura Bayley, Florence Lawrence, Berthe Dagmar, Gilbert Saroni, and Lili Zeidner.

Films

Léontine

Léontine deviant trottin [Léontine Becomes an Errand Girl] (France 1910), with Léontine.

Les Ficelles de Léontine [Léontine Pulls the Strings] (France 1910), with Léontine.

La pile électrique de Léontine [Léontines Battery] (France 1910), with Léontine.

Léontine en vacances [Léontine on Vacation] (France 1910), with Léontine.

Léontine en apprentissage [Léontine’s Apprenticeship] (France 1910), with Léontine.

Rosalie et Léontine vont au théâtre [Rosalie and Léontine Go to the Theater] (France 1911), with Léontine and Sarah Duhamel.

Ventilateur breveté [The New Air Fan] (France 1911), with Léontine.

Léontine enfant terrible [Léontine, the Troublemaker] (France 1911), with Léontine.

Le bateau de Léontine [Léontine’s Boat] (France 1911), with Léontine.

Un ravalement précipité [A Hasty Renovation] (France 1911), with Léontine and Sarah Duhamel.

Léontine s’envole [Léontine Gets Carried Away] (France 1911), with Léontine.

Les malices de Léontine [Léontine’s Pranks] (France 1912), with Léontine.

Léontine garde la maison [Léontine Keeps House] (France 1912), with Léontine.

Amour et musique [Love and Music] (France 1911), with Léontine.

La peur des ombres [Fear of Shadows] (France 1911), with Léontine.

Lea

Lea sui pattini [Léa on Rollerskates] (Italy 1911), with Lea Giunchi.

Riposo festivo [A Lively Day Off] (Italy 1912), with Lea Giunchi.

Léa bambola [Léa as a Doll] (Italy 1913), with Lea Giunchi.

Catastrophe in the Kitchen

Victoire a ses nerfs [Victoire is on Her Last Nerve] (France 1907).

Finish of Mr. Fresh (US 1899).

The Dairymaid’s Revenge (US 1899).

La grève des bonnes [The Maids’ Strike] (France 1906).

La grève des nourrices [The Nursemaids’ Strike] (France 1907).

La ruse de Miss Plumcake [Miss Plumcake’s Ruse] (France 1911), with Mistinguett.

Her First Biscuits (US 1909), with Florence Lawrence.

How Bridget Served the Salad Undressed (US 1898).

Nora’s 4th of July (US 1901).

How Bridget Made the Fire (US 1900), with Gilbert Saroni.*

The Finish of Bridget McKeen (US 1901).

Mary Jane’s Mishap (UK 1903), with Laura Bayley.

Catastrophe Beyond the Kitchen

Laughing Gas (US 1907), with Bertha Regustus.

Madame fait du sport [Madame is Athletic] (France 1908).

Les femmes cochers [The Coachwomen] (France 1907).

Fille de bain indiscrète [The Indiscreet Bathroom Maid] (France 1902).

Eugénie, redresse-toi! [Eugénie, Stand Up Straight!] (France 1911), with Brunin.*

A Bad (K)night (US 1899).

Le ménage Dranem [The Dranems] (France 1912).

Le Rembrandt de la rue Lepic [The Rembrandt in Rue Lepic] (France 1911), with Berthe Dagmar and Gaston Modot.*

Mixed Babies (US 1908).

Rivalinder [Female Rivals] (Denmark 1906).

Mannekängen [The Mannequin] {fragment} (Sweden 1913), with Lili Zeidner.

* An asterisk indicates a male actor who cross dresses to play a nasty woman.

Disc 2: Queens of Destruction

Unknown performer in La Fureur de Madame Plumette (Eclipse, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Queens of Destruction take up the mantle of their rebellious teen predecessors. They demolish the home, tyrannize their spouses, and wage feminist revolution in the streets. This disc features three French comedienne characters, Cunégonde (Little Chrysia) and Rosalie and Pétronille (both played by Sarah Duhamel). The actress who appeared as Cunégonde was recently identified by Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi as Little Chrysia, a traveling stage performer and prolific film comedienne who also starred in the Cunégonde spinoff series Arabella and Zoé. Duhamel’s films similarly embrace the joy of social protest and anarchic physical destruction, exemplified by Rosalie Has Sleeping Sickness, Rosalie and Her Phonograph, and Pétronille Wins the Big Race. Duhamel’s body is a force of nature and absolutely anything is possible in the world of her films. This disc also includes a curated selection of films on “Tyranny at Home,” turning Hannah Arendt’s warning on its head with the feisty antics of Florence Turner, Alma Taylor, Chrissie White, and Indigenous actress Minnie Devereaux.

Films

Cunégonde

Cunégonde trop curieuse [Cunégonde is Too Curious] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde ramoneur [Cunégonde the Chimney Sweep] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde femme cochère [Cunégonde the Coachwoman] (France 1913), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde femme du monde [Cunégonde is a Woman of the World] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia

Cunégonde femme crampon [Cunégonde the Nasty Woman] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde aime son maître [Cunégonde Loves Her Employer] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde jalouse [Cunégonde is Jealous] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Cunégonde membre de la SPA [Cunégonde is a Member of the SPCA] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Gisèle a manqué le train [Gisèle Missed Her Train] (France 1912), with Little Chrysia.

Zoé a la main malheureuse [Zoé the Unfortunate Housemaid] (France 1913), with Little Chrysia.

Zoé et le parapluie miraculeux [Zoé and the Miraculous Umbrella] (France 1913), with Little Chrysia.

Rosalie

Rosalie et son phonographe [Rosalie and Her Phonograph] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

Rosalie emménage [Rosalie Moves In] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

Rosalie a la maladie du sommeil [Rosalie Has Sleeping Sickness] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

Rosalie et ses meubles fidèles [Rosalie and Her Faithful Furniture] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

Little Moritz demande Rosalie en mariage [Little Moritz Wants to Marry Rosalie] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

Little Moritz enlève Rosalie [Little Moritz Runs Away With Rosalie] (France 1911), with Sarah Duhamel.

C’est la faute à Rosalie [It’s Rosalie’s Fault!] (France 1912), with Sarah Duhamel.

Pétronille

Le singe de Pétronille [Pétronille’s Monkey] (France 1913), with Sarah Duhamel.

Pétronille gagne le grand steeple [Pétronille Wins the Grand Steeple Chase] (France 1913), with Sarah Duhamel.

Patouillard a une femme jalouse [Patouillard Has a Jealous Wife] (France 1912), with Sarah Duhamel.

Gavroche à Luna-Park [Gavroche at Luna Park] (France 1912), with Sarah Duhamel.

Le désespoir de Pétronille [Pétronille’s Despair] (France 1914), with Sarah Duhamel.

Tyranny at Home

La fureur de Mme Plumette [Madame Plumette’s Fury] (France 1912).

Fatty and Minnie He-Haw (US 1914), with Minnie Devereaux.

Daisy Doodad’s Dial (UK 1914), with Florence Turner.

Hypnotizing the Hypnotist (US 1911), with Florence Turner.

Tilly’s Party (UK 1911), with Alma Taylor and Chrissie White.

Marie est trop obéissante [Marie is Too Obedient] (France 1912).

Onésime et la toilette de mademoiselle Badinois [Onésime and Mademoiselle Badinois’ Outfit] (France 1912), with Ellen Lowe.

Non! Tu ne sortiras pas sans moi! [No! You’re Not Going Anywhere Without Me!] (France 1911), with Ernest Bourbon.*

Lucky Jim (US 1909), with Marion Leonard.

Nellie, the Beautiful Housemaid {fragment} (US 1908).

* An asterisk indicates a male actor who cross dresses to play a nasty woman.

Disc 3: Gender Rebels

A Range Romance (Bison, USA, 1911). Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Gender Rebels celebrate the porousness of gender in American silent film, from cross-dressing girl spies to the gender hijinks of the wild West and frozen North. This disc includes the surviving films from writer/director/actor Gene Gauntier’s girl spy series and the best of Edna “Billy” Foster’s work at Biograph, where the young assigned-female actor played almost exclusively male roles. On the Western frontier, young women disguise themselves as boys to seek their fortune; other films show the rambunctious gun-toting femininity cultivated out West. This disc also spotlights performances by actor-producer Texas Guinan, Indigenous star Lillian St. Cyr (Winnebago), lesbian comedian Fay Tincher, and Japanese-American sensation Tsuru Aoki.

Films

The Girl Spy

The Girl Spy: An Incident of the Civil War (US 1909), with Gene Gauntier.

The Further Adventures of the Girl Spy (US 1910), with Gene Gauntier.

The Girl Spy Before Vicksburg (US 1910), with Gene Gauntier.

Edna “Billy” Foster

A Country Cupid (US 1911), with Edna “Billy” Foster.

The Adventures of Billy (US 1911), with Edna “Billy” Foster.

A Terrible Discovery (US 1911), with Edna “Billy” Foster.

The Baby and the Stork (US 1912), with Edna “Billy” Foster.

Gender Frontiers

The Red Girl and the Child (US 1910), with Lilian St. Cyr (Red Wing).

An Up-to-Date Squ*w (US 1911).

The Death Mask (US 1914), with Tsuru Aoki.

A Range Romance (US 1911).

Making a Man of Her (US 1912), with Louise Glaum.

The Planter’s Wife (US 1908), with Claire McDowell and Florence Lawrence.

Dollars and Sense (US 1916), with Ora Carew.

Rowdy Ann (US 1919), with Fay Tincher.

The Night Rider (US 1920), with Texas Guinan.

Disc 4: Female Tricksters

What’s the World Coming To? (Hal Roach, USA, 1926), starring Katherine Grant.

This disc sets out the perils and pleasures of boyish and boisterous young women in urban and modern spaces. Cross-dressing provides myriad opportunities for accidental same-sex attraction, and women look to male attire to brave the mean streets of the early 20th century metropolis. Evelyn Greeley moonlights as both Sapphic dancer and male Latin professor in Phil-for-Short, while theater star Mabel Taliaferro plays a headstrong society girl who disguises herself as a boy to win her father’s land from a “woman-hating” French trapper in the frontier BDSM fantasy, Snowbird. Other films play with the rapid changes to gender and sexuality unfolding at this time, from a topsy-turvy comedy set 100 years in the future when “men are like women” and “women are like men” to the disorienting rituals, masquerades, and mistaken identities unleashed by a sorority initiation in She’s A Prince. It also features hilarious performances by Renée Sylvaire, Dorothy Bernard, Louise Glaum, and Alice Ardell.

Films

Don’t Believe Your Eyes

The Boy Detective (US 1908).

Pranks (US 1909), with Marion Leonard.

Taming a Husband (US 1910), with Elinor Kershaw and Dorothy Bernard.

Amour et science [Love and Science] (France 1912), with Renée Sylvaire.

Mr. Smith, Barber (US 1912), with Anne Taylor.

Romance in Disguise

The Snowbird (US 1916), with Mabel Taliaferro.

Phil for Short (US 1919), with Evelyn Greeley.

Topsy Turvy Gender Madness

She’s a Prince (US 1926), with Alice Ardell.

What’s the World Coming To? (US 1926), with Katherine Grant and Laura de Cardi.

Still from La grève des bonnes (1906)

Project Credits

Project Directors: Laura Horak (Carleton University) and Maggie Hennefeld (University of Minnesota)
Co-Curators: Laura Horak, Maggie Hennefeld, and Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi (Eye Filmmuseum)
Producer: Bret Wood (Kino Lorber)
Music Supervisor: Dana Reason (Oregon State University)
Music Coordinator: Rachel Loewen (Carleton University/University of Warwick)
Project Coordinator: Kate Higginson (Carleton University)
Agreements Officer: Asli Eran (Carleton University)
Booklet Editors: Laura Horak, Maggie Hennefeld, Alana Skwarok (Carleton University)
Film Metadata Researcher: Daniel Aufmann (University of Minnesota)
Research Assistants: Vanessa Cambier (University of Minnesota), Gabriela Llerena (University of Minnesota)
Translators: Daniel Aufmann, Enrique Moreno Ceballos (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Aurore Spiers (University of Chicago)
Anti-Racism Advisory Panel: Renée C. Baker (The Chicago Modern Orchestra Project), Liza Black (Indiana University), Charlene Regester (University of North Carolina), Jan Michael Looking Wolf Reibach (Oregon State University), Enrique Moreno Ceballos, Cecilia Ramírez Morales (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México)
Video Introductions: Liza Black, Thirza Cuthand, Maggie Hennefeld, Laura Horak, Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi, Dana Reason, Arigon Starr, Susan Stryker, Kyla Wazana Tompkins (Pomona College)
Audio Commentaries: Jennifer Bean (University of Washington), Liza Black, Enrique Moreno Ceballos, Liz Clarke (Brock University), Bryony Dixon (British Film Institute), Jane Gaines (Columbia University), Rosa María Licea Garibay (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Joanna Hearne (University of Oklahoma), Maggie Hennefeld, Laura Horak, Pamela Hutchinson (Silent London), Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi, Mariann Lewinsky (Cineteca di Bologna), Katharina Loew (University of Massachusetts Boston), Cecilia Ramírez Morales, Dana Reason, Ana Belén Recoder (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Lluvia Soto Rodríguez (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Aurore Spiers, Shelley Stamp (University of California, Santa Cruz), Alejandra Calleja Toxqui (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Kristen Anderson Wagner (University of Southern California), Laetitia Vigneron (Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México), Yiman Wang (University of California, Santa Cruz)
Booklet contributors: Daniel Aufmann, Jennifer Bean, Liza Black, Liz Clarke, Joanna Hearne, Maggie Hennefeld, Laura Horak, Pamela Hutchinson, Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi, Katharina Loew, Dana Reason, Charlene Regester, Alana Skwarok, Aurore Spiers, Shelley Stamp
Project Partners: Giornate del Cinema Muto (Jay Weissberg), Women Film Pioneers Project (Kate Saccone and Jane Gaines), Carleton University, Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México (Enrique Moreno Ceballos and Cecilia Ramírez Morales)
Participating Archives: EYE Filmmuseum, Library of Congress, Jérome Seydoux Pathé Foundation, GP Archives, British Film Institute, Blackhawk Films, George Eastman Museum, Library and Archives Canada, National Library of Norway, Swedish Film Institute, San Francisco Silent Film Festival, Museum of Modern Art, Harvard Film Archive, Princeton University Library
Composers and Performers: Alicia Svigals, Amy Denio, Annelise Zamula, Ayi Solomon, Bill Noertker, Camila Cortina Bello, Carolina Hengstenberg, Carolyn Swartz, Catherine Lee, Christina Rusnak, Coco Bender, Dana Reason, Daniel Muschinsky, Dave Mihaly, David Borgo, Dianthe (Dee) Spencer, Don Ross, Dreamland Faces (Karen Majewicz, Andy McCormick, Julie Johnson, Gail Olszewski, Ryan Billig, Elaine Evans, Rachel Rogness, Philip Potyondy, Chris Hepola, and Christa Schneider), Edmar Colon, Eliot Britton, Elizabeth (Liz) Magnes, Elizabeth-Jane Baldry, Ellen Weller, Esin Aydingoz, Eunice Martins, Fabio Rojas, Frank Bockius, Gay Pearson, Gerson Lazo-Quiroga, Gonca Feride Varol, Guenter Buchwald, Harold Charon, Indiana University Orchestra (Daniel Whitworth, Tyler Readinger, Miriam Tung, Calvin Sall, Allison Dettloff, Clara Manzano, Yoav Hayut, Achille Vocat, John Heo, Em Singleton, Ilina Ilieva, Thomas Shaw, Eion Lyons, Teresa Labuda, and Gus Brown), Ivanna Cuesta Gonzalez, Jan Michael Looking Wolf Reibach, Jana King, Jane Gardner, John Lockwood, Jose Ignacio Santo Aquino,José María Serralde Ruiz, Karl Soukoup, Kevin Harris, Kinnie Starr, Kristor Brødsgaard, Leslie Dukes, Libby Meyer, Lillian Henley, Lorena Ruiz Trejo, María Fernanda García Solar, Mark Weaver, Martha Mooke, Meg Morley, Michael Dessen, Nadia Citlali Cano Castañeda, Naomi Greena Nakanishi, Nate Hubbard, Niclas Compagno, Peter Valsamis, Phil McGowan, Renée C. Baker, Renée T. Coulombe, Roella Oloro, Santiago Bertel, Sara Ontaneda, Sean Sonderegger, Steven Montecucco, Terri Lyne Carrington, Tracy McMullen, Veronica Leahy, Violin/Noir (Rebecca Sabine and Aaron Ramsey), Yael Acher “KAT” Modiano

“Cinema’s First Nasty Women” is supported in part by funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.

Past Events

Phil-for-Short (1919) screening, British Film Institute, London, July 17, 2022. Introduction by BFI curator Bryony Dixon.

Portrait-Profile Little Chrysia,” Presentation by Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi and screening, Il Cinema Ritrovato (Bologna, Italy), June 29, 2022. Followed by a presentation of the Cinema’s First Nasty Women DVD/Blu-ray box set with Laura Horak and Maggie Hennefeld.

Cinema’s First Nasty Women Feminist Shorts,” Screening at Nitehawk Cinema, Brooklyn, New York. June 29, 2022.

You Don’t Own Me”: Copy/Rights and Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” online film program, Kennington Bioscope YouTube channel, June 8-26, 2022. In collaboration with the 2022 Domitor conference.

Screening, Cinema’s First Nasty Women, Orphans 2022: Counter-Archives (Montreal), June 15-18, 2022.

Gender Rebels!” double bill, Yorkshire Silent Film Festival, June 13, 2022.

You Don’t Own ME”: Copy/Rights and Cinema’s First Nasty Women.” Domitor conference screening day, Columbia University (New York), June 6, 2022.

Panel on scoring Cinema’s First Nasty Women, featuring CFNW music supervisor Dana Reason, Kendra Preston Leonard (Silent Film Sound and Music Archive), Deborah Saidel (Independent), Migiwa Miyajima (Independent), International Alliance for Women in Music Conference, Oregon State University, June 3, 2022.

Curating Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” roundtable discussion, Women & the Silent Screen conference, Columbia University (New York), June 2, 2022.

The Nasty Women of Cinema II,” Film Program at Beykoz Kundura (İstanbul, Turkey), March 27 & April 16, 2022.

The Nasty Women of Silent Cinema,” University of Toronto, Cinema Studies Institute, April 14, 2022. Speakers: co-curators Laura Horak and Maggie Hennefeld.

Gender Rebels,” Nasty Women double-bill program at The Hippodrome Silent Film Festival (Bo’Ness, Scotland), March 18, 2022. Introduction by Pamela Hutchinson.

Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” Film Program at Eye Filmmuseum (Amsterdam), March 8, 2022. Introduced by co-curator Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi.

Phil-For-Short (1919) screening at the Indiana University Cinema (Bloomington, Indiana), February 22, 2022.

Nasty Women panel, Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México (Puebla, Mexico), Tuesday, November 23, 20

Nasty Women 3,” Giornate del Cinema Muto (Pordenone, Italy), October 2-9, 2021.

Nasty Women: A Comic Tribute,” British Film Institute, Sept. 26, 2021.

Nasty Women: Short Films,” Colgate University, Sept. 3, 2021. Post-screening discussion with co-curators Laura Horak and Maggie Hennefeld.

Cinema’s First Nasty Women,” Sneak Peek Online Film Program, Beykoz Kundura (İstanbul, Turkey) March 8-28, 2021.

Feminist Laughter,” Festival Internacional de Cine Silente México (Puebla, Mexico), November 2019.

Nasty Women,” Day of Silent Cinema (Indiana University Cinema), October 2019.

Nasty Women 2,” Giornate del Cinema Muto (Pordenone, Italy), October 2019.

Nasty Women,” Giornate del Cinema Muto (Pordenone, Italy), October 2017.

Girls Will Be Boys,”Giornate del Cinema Muto (Pordenone, Italy), October 2015.

Publications

Hennefeld, Maggie, Laura Horak, and Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi. “Gender and the Nasty Women of history.” Early Popular Visual Culture vol. 19, no. 1 (June 1 2022). https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17460654.2021.2074962.

Hennefeld, Maggie. “Cinema’s First Nasty Women (Or, How to Record a Celebrity Video Intro).” FLOW, May 16, 2022. https://www.flowjournal.org/2022/05/cinemas-first-nasty-women/.

Hennefeld, Maggie, Laura Horak, and Elif Rongen-Kaynakçi. “Feminist Catastrophe Against Disaster Patriarchy: Curating Cinema’s First Nasty Women.” Modernism/modernity, July 28, 2021.

Related Scholarship

For related scholarship and further resources see the Nasty Women Bibliography!

Related Media Coverage

For online articles and interviews about our project and related events see our expanding list of Nasty Women press coverage.

Image Gallery

Unknown performer [Léontine] in Bateau de Léontine (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection (left). Texas Guinan publicity still, 1919. Courtesy of the Guinan Family Archives, Stayton, OR (right).

Émile Dehelly and Renée Sylvaire in Amour et Science (Éclair, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Unknown performer [Léontine] in Amour et Musique (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Unknown performer [Léontine] in Bateau de Léontine (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Little Chrysia in Cunégonde Femme Cochère (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Little Chrysia in Cunégonde Femme Crampon (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Little Chrysia in Cunégonde Femme du Monde (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Little Chrysia in Cunégonde Jalouse (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Little Chrysia in Cunégonde Trop Curieuse (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Cunégonde in action. Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Florence Turner in Daisy Doodad’s Dial (Florence Turner Productions, UK, 1914). Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

Sarah Duhamel in Le Désespoir de Pétronille (Éclair, France, 1914). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Bertha Regustus in Laughing Gas (Edison, USA, 1907). Courtesy of the Library of Congress

Lea Giunchi in Lea Bambola (Cines, Italy, 1913). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Little Moritz Demande Rosalie en Mariage (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Making a Man of Her (Nestor, USA, 1912) starring Louise Glaum. Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Louise Glaum in Making a Man of Her (Nestor, USA, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Ellen Lowe (maid) in La Fureur de Madame Plumette (Eclipse, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Patouillard A Une Femme Jalouse (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Patouillard A Une Femme Jalouse (Lux, France, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Pétronille Gagne le Grand Steeple-Chase (Éclair, France, 1913). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Unknown performer [Léontine] in La Peur Des Ombres  (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Unknown performer in La Peur Des Ombres (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Lea Giunchi and Fernanda Negri-Pouget in Riposo Festivo (Cines, Italy, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Lea Giunchi and Fernanda Negri-Pouget in Riposo Festivo (Cines, Italy, 1912). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Minnie Devereaux in Fatty and Minnie He Haw (1914). Courtesy of the Academy Film Archive.

Sarah Duhamel in Rosalie et son Phonographe (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Rosalie et son Phonographe (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel in Le Singe de Pétronille (Éclair, France, 1914). Courtesy of the EYE Filmmuseum/Desmet Collection.

Sarah Duhamel and unknown performer [Léontine] in Rosalie et Léontine vont au Théatre (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the BFI.

Sarah Duhamel and unknown performer [Léontine] in Rosalie et Léontine vont au Théatre (Pathé Comica, France, 1911). Courtesy of the BFI.